Retrieved from: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Research: Bibliographies Documents the controversial career of conductor and composer Wilhelm Furtwangler, who chose to remain in Germany and work with the Nazi Party throughout the war despite his open criticism of the regime. Details his complex relationship with Jewish musicians. Includes photographs and important documents from his life.
Retrieved from: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Research: Bibliographies Illustrates how Nazi officials used economic and professional incentives to persuade artists - including musicians, composers, and conductors - to support the regime. Includes and extensive bibliography and an index.
Retrieved from: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Research: Bibliographies Traces the life of Herbert Zipper, a Viennese conductor and composer sent to Dachau in 1938. Describes his efforts to create a secret orchestra in the camp, his transfer to Buchenwald, and his eventual release in 1939.
Mark Rabinovich was Born in 1870 in the town of Zdvyzhensk (Kiev province of the Russian Empire; now Brusilov, Ukraine). He studied music under the guidance of his grandfather, the klezmer violinist and composer Israel-Moishe Rabinovich.
In 1937-1938 he was the head of the State Ensemble of Jewish Folk Music of the Ukrainian SSR. The ensemble performed on the radio and toured Ukraine and Belarus, Moldova, and Crimea.
Moshe Wilensky was born in 1910 in Warsaw, Poland. During the first World War, his family emigrated to Russia where they stayed until 1917, when they returned to Warsaw. In his youth, he studied at the "Eskela" Jewish Gymnasium, where the Hebrew was taught in addition to general studies.
Born in Hadera, Israel, where he performed as a cantor from a young age. He composed, orchestrated, and arranged many works for cantor and choir. One of Sobol's main projects was the establishment of the Yuval Ensemble for cantorate and Jewish music, where he served as musical director and conductor.
Alexander Olshanetsky was born in Odessa, Ukraine. He played with the Odessa Opera orchestra and toured Russia and Siberia, and later was the choral director for a Russian operetta company. He stayed in Kharbin (today in China), and conducted a Yiddish theater group there. In 1922, Olshanetsky immigrated to the U.S. and worked as a composer and conductor for the Yiddish theater. From 1925 and until his death, Olshanetsky was one of the most prominent composers and conductors of the "Second Avenue" milieu.