Trial of Strength: Wilhelm Furtwangler in the Third Reich

Retrieved from: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Research: Bibliographies Documents the controversial career of conductor and composer Wilhelm Furtwangler, who chose to remain in Germany and work with the Nazi Party throughout the war despite his open criticism of the regime. Details his complex relationship with Jewish musicians. Includes photographs and important documents from his life.

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Art, Ideology & Ecomomics in Nazi Germany: The Reich Chambers of Music, Theater, and the Visual Arts

Retrieved from: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Research: Bibliographies Illustrates how Nazi officials used economic and professional incentives to persuade artists - including musicians, composers, and conductors - to support the regime. Includes and extensive bibliography and an index.

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Mordechai Sobol

Cantor and composer

Born in Hadera, Israel, where he performed as a cantor from a young age. He composed, orchestrated, and arranged many works for cantor and choir. One of Sobol's main projects was the establishment of the Yuval Ensemble for cantorate and Jewish music, where he served as musical director and conductor.  



Alexander Olshanetsky

Composer & conductor of Yiddish theater music

Alexander Olshanetsky was born in Odessa, Ukraine. He played with the Odessa Opera orchestra and toured Russia and Siberia, and later was the choral director for a Russian operetta company. He stayed in Kharbin (today in China), and conducted a Yiddish theater group there. In 1922, Olshanetsky immigrated to the U.S. and worked as a composer and conductor for the Yiddish theater. From 1925 and until his death, Olshanetsky was one of the most prominent composers and conductors of the "Second Avenue" milieu.


Gary Bertini

Israeli Composer and conductor

Born in Bessarabia (today Moldova), immigrated to Palestine in 1946. Founded and directed the Rinat Choir (1955-1974), the Israel Chamber Orchestra (1964-1975) and other Israeli musical establishments. Was an acclaimed conductor in Israel and abroad. As a composer, known mostly for his incidental theater music.

For an extended biography, courtesy of Gary Bertini's website, click here


Joel Walbe

Israeli composer

Joel Walbe was born in Shepetovka, Volhynia (today Ukraine). As a boy, his education was standard for wealthy Jewish families in Russia. He first studied Torah in the Heder, and then proceeded to general studies with private teachers.